Perennials. Leaves with acute, mucronate or obtuse tips. Inflorescence racemose; flowers borne singly in much branched decompound inflorescences, or in few- to many-flowered head-like groups, or in pedunculate clusters, sometimes wholly congested. Endodermis of cells with U-shaped thickened walls in T.S. Seeds finely reticulate or smooth; appendages basal or ±absent.